Saturday, April 24, 2010

The Muslim Reformer

A short history of Hazrat Pir Abu Bakar Siddiqui (The Muslim Reformer)

  1. Emammul Huda Hazrat Abu-Bakar Siddiqui (Rah.) was born on 1263 (Bengali year 1252), his father was Hazrat Moulana Abdul Makhdum Abdul Moktadder (Rah.) and mother was Mohabbatunnisa.
  2. After completing his primary education in the Sitapur Madrasa of Hooghly, he passed the highest academic course in Madrasa ‘Jamaet-Ula’ from Hooghly Madrasa. He studied philosophy under the instruction of Moulana Nazar Shah Belaetir, one of the renowned philosophers of those days. He completed his study of the Hadith and the Tafsir near Muhaddes Hafez Jamaluddin Mungeri, ‘Khalifa’ of Mujadded Hazrat Syeed Ahmed Erfan Shahid and favorite student of renowned Muhaddith Hazrat Ahmed Ali Shaharanpuri. At the age of 23-24 years he was able to take an account of every knowledge. In the year 1310 after goin to Maccca and Madina Sarif. He was given ‘Sanad’ of 40 Hadith by the famous Muhadded of Madina Shaekh-uddalael Syed Amin Rezwan. Besides this he studied various books for a long period of 18 years. It can be said here that books were his all time friends.
  3. He was grateful in contact with Rasool Noma Sha Sufi Fateh Ali Waisi great Sufi of the respective time. He had performed great meditation to gain spiritual knowledge.
  4. One of the chief sides of diligent life of versatile scholar Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddiqui (Rah.) is the reformation of the erroneous East India Sufism. We come to know about various erring Pirs, Fakirs of that time such as ‘Meeresharia’, ‘Jalesharia’, ‘Maizbhandaria’, ‘Turunia’, ‘Ojdania’, ‘Zazbaiya’, ‘Prembhaja’, ‘Kadumia’, ‘Dangshumari’, ‘Hadi-Allah’, ‘Ahle Baten’, ‘Baulia’, ‘Awlia’ etc.
  5. He was a Pir of ‘Chishtia’, ‘Kaderia’, ‘Naksh-Bandia’, ‘Naksh-Bandia-Mujaddedia’, ‘Sufi’ doctrine. It was worth mentioning that the doctrine Naksh-Bandia-Mujaddedia acquired prosperity by Hazrat Hameed Bangali in (1653) one of the ‘Khalifa’ of Hazrat Mujadded Alfesani (Rah.) the first pioneer of the doctrine Naksh-Bandia-Mujaddedia and in the subsequent period it became prosperous in Bengal by Abu Bakar Siddiqui (Rah.) Pir Saheb of Furfura Sharif.
  6. Various attempts to convert illiterate indigent harmless Muslims into Christianity remained unrestrained by Christian missionaries. As a result a large number of Muslims became Christians in the district of Nadia, Kuhstia and Jessore. According to ‘Islam Pracharak’ magazine almost all farmer-subject embraced ‘Isaee-Dwin’ (Christianity). Furfura’s Pir Abu Bakar Siddiqui stopped various attempts to convert Muslims into Christianity by Christian missionaries by means of various news-papers, books, magazines, missions, societies and performing wrangles with Christian Clergyman. As a result religious faith of the Muslims survived. It is worthy to be mentioned that an organization called ‘Anjuman-E-Waejin ‘Hanafia’ was established by Furfura’s Hazrat. A member of this organization, who was a renowned Islamic preacher and pupil of Furfura’s Hazrat Moulana Munsi Zamir-Uddin Vidyavinod Saheb, obeying the order of his own Emamul Huda Pir Abu Bakar Siddiqui(Rah.), vindicated erroneous religious publicity of the Christians and various erring concepts about the great ‘Nabi’ Hazrat Muhammad(صلى الله عليه و سلم) and 108 number of books. As a result numerous Muslims who were converted into Christianity were reconverted into Muslim by reading ‘Kalema La Ilaha’ (Islamic prayer).
  7. He had purified numerous non Islamic imaginary customs of the societies of united Bengal-Asam such as adoration of grave, Dargah adoration, worship of Manasha in the month of September, ‘Satya Pir’ Pox and Cholera, Kali-Worship, ‘Manik Pir’, ‘Ban-bibi Fatima’, ‘Ola Bibi’ etc.
  8. His mission takes the role of a pioneer to prevent various groups such as hypo critic Pir-Fakir, Kadiyani, Shia, Christian Missionaries, Ahle Hadith or La-Mazhabi and to establish ‘Sunnatul-Jamyet’ Hanafi-Mazhab.
  9. He had setup numerous new skim old skim Madrasas, Maktabs and various schools of about 800 numbers and 1100 numbers of Masjids (Mosque).
  10. He had corrected deceitful ‘Urus’ system and he had introduce ‘Shariyat’ approved ‘Isal-e-sayab’ in this country. He had setup ‘Isal-e-sayab’ in his own house Furfura Sharif and left precedent of shariyat approved ‘Isa-e-sayab’.
  11. At that time in our country particularly in the Muslim society class-division was very prominent such as ashraf, atraf or aristocrat, non aristocrat community etc. He protested strongly against family-vanity, class division and casteism. In this connection his opinion was that – as a person all men are same, it is not the race but onc’s eligibility and religious, limitless which can only make one great.
  12. Leaders of ‘Wahabi’ and Farayijee agitation Hazi Shariyatullah dudu mia etc. Consider this country as ‘Darul Harb’ and they forbid performing Jummah and Eid’s Namaz. As a result Jummah Namaz was stop in a number of mosques. At first Hazrat Karamat Ali Jonpuri (Rah.) and in the subsequent period Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddiqui being influence by Hazrat Karamat Ali’s conception, protested vehemently against the stopping of Jummah Performer. As a result Jummah Namaz was again introducing in the mosque of Bengal.
  13. He protested strongly against various improper and ‘Shariyat’ forbidden activities such as reading of the Quran, giving Azan in gramophone, dancing and singing of Muslim girls in the Calcutta University Hall, Milad-Mahfil (public meeting related with various Islamic knowledge) in theater hall, harassment of Hazi Pilgrims, Playing Music system in front of Mosque, prohibition of slaughter of cows, establishing idols beside the TipuSultan Mosque of Esplaned WakofBill, Sarada Marriage Act etc.
  14. He played an important role in ‘Khilafat’ and ‘Swadeshi Agitation’. In those days to get the support of Bengali Muslims, in the political affairs each Muslim leaders had to take aid from him, because in that time he was consider to be one and only influential religious leader. In that time collecting Fifty Thousand rupees He sent it to the wife, son, daughter of injured soldiers of Turkey and he frequently made British administration alert about the activities of ‘Khilafat’. Due to the endeavor of the social-reformer Abu Bakar Siddiqui and his mission, Islamic reformation agitation gave birth to the national and religious consciousness. On the other hand ‘Khilafat’ agitation supplied the fuel and aroused a huge amount of enthusiasm.
  15. In the Bengali year 1341, before setting out to Azmir sharif, he protested strongly against various deceitful works which were invoke in the darbar of Khawaza Azmiri, he published magazines, booklets in urdu language and spread them to stop deceitful works. As a result heretic activities were stop for some days in the darbar of Azmir Sharif. It is mentionable that as a consequence of his protest, even now Khadems (attendants) do not force Furfuras muridans to perform deceitful works.
  16. He always gave his consent to the study of the English language along with religious study. He played an active role in the expansion of education. He was an executive member of Calcutta Madrasa, Hooghly Mohsinia Madrasa and he was a member of Government Text Book Committee. He was also a member of Muslims Education Committee establish in the year 1930. other member of this committee were Sir Mahmud Hasan , Khan Bahadur Abdul Momen, C.I.Shamsul Ulama Abu Naser, Mohammad Wahid, Abdullah Sarawardi, A.K. Fazlul Haq, Abdul Karim.
  17. In the end of 19th century and beginning of the 20th century the numbers of religious books written in Bengali language were insufficient which could meet the necessity of the day. Majority of Islamic books were written in the language Urdu and Persian although the mother tongue of lion shears of people Bengali and not Urdu. In the midst of this era his pupil obeying his order and with his help published 2000 big-small books written in Bengali and distributed then among the common people.
  18. At this contemporary period, of the books-magazines which played important role in the renaissance of the Muslims, majority of these books-magazines were patronize by the social reformer and Furfura’s pir Abu Baker Siddiqui (Rah). The magazine were ‘Islam Pracharak’ (1891), ‘Mihir o Sudhakar’(1895), ‘Sultan’(1902), ‘Nabanoor’ (1903), ‘Muslim Hitaishi’(1911), ‘Islam Darshan’ (1920), ‘Al Islam’(1915), ‘Shariyat’(1924), ‘Hanafi’(1926), ‘Banga Noor’(1919), ‘Raoshan Hidayat’(1926), ‘Al Muslim’(1928), ‘Hanafi Jamayat’(1926), ‘Taruner Danda o Islamer Jhanda’(1930), ‘Sunnat Al Jamayet’, ‘Mohammadi’ respectively.
  19. In the first half of the 20th century he had deep connection with the majority of the organizations related to social, religious, educational, association of the united Bengal-Asam especially with the ‘Anjuman-e-Ittefaq’ (1904), ‘The Anjuman-e- Trakki-e-Kaum’, ‘Nurul-Emaan-Society’(1884), The ‘Nikhil Bharat Islam Pracharak’. Dr Abdullah in his research book has written that the first institution for Bengali ‘Alems’ (learns person) was the ‘Anjuman-e-Wajejeen Hanafia’(1911) including ‘Anjuman-Olama’(1913) which is now know as ‘Jamiyat-e-Ulama a Bengal-Asam. It was established by Furfura Hazarat Abu Baker Siddiqui (Rah.). Many other intelligent accomplished persons were connected with the ‘Islam Prachar Samity’(1916), ‘Bengal Tanjim comitte’ (1926) and there as Sir Abdur Rahim, A.K.Gaznabi, Nabab Musharraf Hossain, NababNasir Hossain, A.K Fazlul Hoq, Sharvardi, Moulavi Abdul Karim.
  20. According t the History of Hooghly district (volume 3) about 5 lacs people of Eastbengal became Abu baker Siddiqui disciple. But other writers considered it as a very tough job to find out the total number of his pupils.
  21. Furfuras Hazrat, the social-reformer had five hundred fifty five ‘Khalifas’ there is especial disciples who dedicated themselves for the sake of the expansion and publicity of ‘Deen-Islam’ and united Bengal-Asam. All these Khalifas or spiritual education centers were establish in the various parts of East Bengal at the end of 19th century and in the beginning of 20th century, and many books on Sufism were composed adhering to the principals of Fufuras Pir Abu Bakar Siddiqui (Rah.).
  22. Besides India he had many Khalifas or Representatives in abroad such as- 1. Moulana Muazzem Hussain Maccan(Macca Sharif). 2. Moulana badruddin Meccan(Misfala,Mecca), 3.Moulana Umar Bukhari(Bukhara of Russia), 4. Moulana Abdul Majid(Peshawar), 5.Moulana Badakhi shani(Persian) names of some other khalifas of Berma(Myanmar) and other countries are unknown.
  23. Among the the ‘Khalifas’ of Furfuras Hazrat who were elevated scholars and accomplished persons mention must be made of:-

(1)Allam Ruhul Amin (Rah), (2)Allama Waji-Ullah Sandapi(Rah.), It is mentionable that he along with Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri of Deobandar learn Hadith ect. Ilm.He should be remembered as Bengali who had secured the first position in his examination (chattagram). (3) Allama Nasaruddin Ahmed (Rah.) (Barishal), (4) Allama Shahidullah (Rah.) he was also a renowned International philologist (North 24 Pargana), (5) Allama Badakh-Shani, (6) Allama Omar Bokhari, (7) Allama Badruddin Meccan, (8) Allama Abdul Aziz Kanakpuri, (9) Allama Waheed Hossain Farooqui, (10) Allama Sayeed Ahmed(Rah.) (24 Pgs.), (13) Allama Shah Salamatullah (Rah.) (Noakhali).

  1. Mujadded-e-jaman Emmamul Huda Hazrat Pir Abu Bakar Siddiqui (Rah.) took his last breath on 17th March 1939(Bengali-3rd chaitra,1345) Friday at 5-45 a.m. He was Survied by 3 wives 5 sons and 5 daughters. His Eldest son was Shah Sufi Moulana Hazi Abu Nasar Muhammd Abdu Hye Siddiqui(Rah.) Bara Huzur Pir Kebla, 2nd son was Shah Sufi Mufti-e-Bangla-Asam Moulana Abu Zafar Muhammad Wajihuddin Siddiqui(Rah.) mejo hujur Pir Kebla, His 3rd son was Shah Sufi Moulana Abdul Kader Siddiqui (Rah.), 4th son was Shah Sufi Moulana Hazi Nazmus Sahadat Siddiqui(Rah.), 5th son was Shah Sufi Moulana Zulfikar Siddiqui (Rah.). His System of work remained accurately unrestrained by his own five sons.
  2. From the histories of Hooghly District, Pabna District and many other evidence it came to be known that Furfuras Hazrat was above all types of narrowness and communalism. There was no place for abhorrent cast system, Separation of class or hostility in his mind. As a Muslim, a Hindu and the people of other communities could unhesitatingly get a place in his magnanimous blossom. He had no such relationship with politics. He had temporarily supported Muslim League later he had retracted his support from league for breaking of their promise.

-Syed Bahauddin